Malnutrition refers to a condition in which the body does not get enough nutrients where the cause can poor intake, absorption or utilization leading to irreversible or reversible short term and long term symptoms. Examples of these nutrients include; Minerals like calcium, phosphorus, and potassium, proteins, lipids, and carbohydrate.
Malnutrition in children is a common global health problem that majorly exists in many regions especially the developing countries. According to WHO malnutrition accounts for 54% mortality among children globally and about 35% deaths of children below five years result from underweight and needed require medical treatment.
Signs and Symptoms
1. Stunting – This refers to an extremely low height for age. This can be as a result of lack of protein or calcium. Calcium is needed for bone modelling and ossification leading to its formation and growth while protein is a requirement in forming tissue structures. Growth occurs from birth to age between 16 and 18 years. After this period the growth plate closes thus no more growth.
2. Underweight – During child growth, weight gain should be directly proportional to age. Underweight means the child has less than what is expected of him/her at that age. Underweight is directly a result of muscle wasting.
3. Muscle wasting – Due to loss of proteins and other bodybuilding nutritional supplies, a child becomes thin which is evident by poor skin turgor.
4. Signs that a health professional can also look for are; fatigue, dizziness, low blood pressure, sunken eyes and high pulse rate.
Types of Malnutrition
- Protein-energy malnutrition – results from a deficiency in almost all nutrients. It can further be classified into; acute malnutrition which is characterized by rapid weight loss and chronic malnutrition which is characterized by stunted growth that the child transitions with into adulthood. examples of conditions include Marasmus, Rickets and Kwashiorkor.
- Micronutrient deficiency diseases – results from lack of a specific micro-nutrient for instance; Iron, folate, vitamin A and examples include anaemia, scurvy, and night blindness.
Causes of malnutrition
- Inadequate food intake – this can be as a result of the absence of food, lack of appetite or inability to swallow.
- Sanitation – in 2008, WHO estimated that half of the malnutrition cases were as a result of poor hygiene, unsafe water that resulted in intestinal worms and diarrhea thus leading to loss of nutrients.
- Maternal factors – this can be poor breastfeeding habits, malnutrition in the mother thus insufficient milk for the baby. It can also be as a result of poor maternal care.
- Poverty – this refers to a socio-economic status that’s below the standard of provision of a child’s basic needs. It’s a common cause of all the above factors since hygiene, shortage of resources falls under it.
- Diseases – Some disease can result in malnutrition. Examples are Infestation by intestinal worms that sucks blood and lead to anemia.
Treatment and prevention
Prevention measures include observing proper hygiene, eating a balanced diet, taking iron and zinc and ORS tablets during diarrhea to control the condition and nutrients loss and early treatment of any disease.
Treatment measures include administering antibiotics to prevent bacterial infections, antiprotozoal to treat worms, and antifungals to treat different skin conditions. Depending on the condition intravenous feeds are prescribed.
Lower respiratory tract infections are among the most frequent pathologies encountered in clinical practice and often appear in subjects with underlying chronic respiratory diseases, such as in particular asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Pneumonia is diagnosed especially in young children and in elderly subjects.
In the etiology of lower respiratory tract infections, respiratory viruses predominate, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenza, followed by Mycoplasma pneumonia, Chlamydia trachomatis, Legionella, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli. Bronchitis and CAP have differences in terms of etiology compared to hospital-acquired forms (nosocomial). In fact, the nosocomial respiratory infectious forms are compared to the “community” ones more frequently due to Gram-negative, anaerobic and to the Staphylococcus aureus, while viral forms are rarer.
Lower respiratory tract infections can show various types of symptoms, including cough (often productive) and dyspnea, that is the subjective feeling of shortness of breath that is excessive both for the entity and for the type of physical activity it follows. Fever is a symptom commonly associated with lower respiratory tract infections, although in many cases it may be mild or absent. For the management and treatment of patients with acute bronchitis, symptomatic treatment (anti-inflammatory, cough suppressants) is generally used, and antibiotics are administered in case of severe infection with fever and/or if the condition does not resolve in 5 -6 days.
The treatment of infectious pneumonia varies according to the causative agent and the patient’s clinical conditions. As for infectious bacterial pneumonia, ideally antibiotic therapy should be based on the isolation of the microbial agent with definition of the specific antibiotic-resistance profile; often, however, antibiotic therapy must necessarily be set on an “empirical” basis, i.e. according to the etiological hypothesis formulated on the basis of clinical-epidemiological assessments and any individual risk factors of the patient.
When we talk about weight loss, burning fat or slimming down most automatically imagine some strict diet plan or a gym full of complicated equipment and heavy dumbbells. But that isn’t the case. The team of professional surgeons at DrTummyTuckMELBOURNE suggests that you can lose weight with some simple weight loss life hacks as well.
Waking to and from work, or to the store can increase your weight loss at a surprising amount. An average person burns more than 200 calories while walking over an hour. To drop a pound per week, you would need to walk between an hour and an hour and a half per day. Simple and easy, yet effective.
Drink only water
The majority of people don’t realize how caloric some of their favorite drinks are. Most sodas, even those with low or zero percent sugar cause a lot of damage to your weight loss goals. Substituting sodas with water will slim you down and give you a better feeling of fullness.
Snack fiber-rich foods
We all have to grab a bite here and there and know we shouldn’t. We can’t help it. And you shouldn’t feel bad about it. Everyone has a finite amount of willpower. Nobody is perfect. But be ready for those lapses of willpower. Pack a banana or apple always with you. They are ten times less caloric than a chocolate bar that you can find at your average store.
Be mindful when you eat
Don’t just gobble everything down. Enjoy and notice every bite you eat. Studies have shown that properly chewing and swallowing of your food can increase weight loss up to 10 percent and give you a better feeling of fullness.
Get enough amount of sleep
This is one of the absolute must weight loss life hacks. Sleep is when your body recovers, balances itself and rebuilds. It is absolutely crucial that you sleep the recommended amount every time you go to bed.
A stomach bug is also known as Stomach flu while its technical term is viral gastroenteritis. This type of sickness is an inflammation of the intestines and stomach that is normally caused by viral infection. Food poisoning, on the other hand, is different but almost similar to a stomach bug. Studies and medical reports have claimed that around 48 million people usually experience food poisoning annually. These conditions may require medical treatment, so it is advisable to consult with your doctor.
I am going to provide comprehensive details on the difference between food poisoning and stomach bug from their symptoms to possible prevention.
If you experience stomach bug, you may exhibit the following symptoms.
- Intestinal or stomach cramps
- Weight loss
- Muscle aches
- Joint aches
- General malaise
Note that, the incubation period of stomach bug symptoms normally occurs within 24-72 hours of being directly exposed to the virus. The more you experience these symptoms, the more you should consult your doctor for more medical advice or rather ruling out other illness or any complications.
Symptoms of sickness include the following:
- Intestinal or stomach cramping
- Muscle aches
- General malaise
- In extreme cases you may experience:
- Vomit or bloody stool
- Severe abdominal cramping
The incubation period of food poisoning can be within either hours, days or weeks after original exposure. This normally relies on the pathogen that causes food poisoning.
This type of sickness is caused by a viral infection. The viruses that mostly cause stomach bug include rotavirus, adenovirus, and norovirus.
It normally develops when pathogens like parasites, viruses or bacteria contaminate foods. Bacteria like Salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus are major causes of food poisoning. Norovirus is also a contributor to this illness.
- Always clean your hands if you have been near a sick person or if you are sick
- Consult your physician concerning the vaccine for Rotavirus
- Isolate yourself from other people if you are infected
- Always ensure that the equipment and preparation area of food is ever clean
- Fully cook seafood and meats
- Refrigerate perishable foods
- Discard doubtful food
It is always advisable to seek medical attention if you experience symptoms of stomach bug and food poisoning for treatment.
At the point when a man has lost at least one teeth, they may consider one of a couple of various tooth replacement alternatives. These might be careful or temporary and removable. There is no highly contrasting standard about the kind of tooth replacement which is better, yet dental specialists will generally attempt and supplant teeth utilizing careful inserts where conceivable.
Learn more about tooth replacement method.
Numerous individuals neglect to see the significance of tooth replacement. It isn’t difficult to comprehend this perspective. After all missing a tooth won’t execute us so it is anything but difficult to view tooth replacement as just a tasteful issue.
That isn’t to endeavor to take away from the tasteful issue postured by losing at least one teeth. A few people are more influenced by changes to their appearance than others and the holes abandoned by missing teeth can affect enormously upon individuals’ lives. So influenced are a few people that they don’t get a handle on ready to go and appreciate social events for fear there will be cameras catching their toothless grins: their confidence is drastically brought down by their missing tooth or teeth.
Notwithstanding, there is something else entirely to tooth replacement than essentially redressing a tasteful issue. The nonattendance of one tooth can prompt issues for the rest of the teeth, regardless of whether they are solid. It isn’t unprecedented for neighboring teeth to develop at a sideways edge into the hole left by the missing tooth. This can debilitate the sound teeth and make extra holes, leaving teeth more defenseless to rot. Essentially, teeth above or underneath the missing tooth on the contrary jaw may become higher or lower than they generally may have to change the state of the nibble.
These issues can be survived and averted utilizing one of the accessible types of replacement. Anyway, there is a further issue that must be forestalled through careful tooth replacement: the shrinkage of the jawbone.
The jawbone goes about as the common stay for the foundation of the tooth. At the point when a zone of jaw bone has no teeth to stay, it shrivels back, changing the state of the jawline and debilitating it in different territories, risking the rest of the teeth. Removable and temporary tooth replacement alternatives don’t insure against this loss of bone since they don’t require the utilization of the bone for a harbor. Careful embeds then again, do. It could be contended in this manner, that supplanting one or few missing teeth utilizing careful tooth replacement.
An operation is a major challenge for the body, and especially the immune system. Therefore, it is important to prepare him for the surgery in the best possible way. With proper nutrition, this is possible before surgery. However, what should be considered in terms of nutrition before the operation is usually less frequently discussed. It’s important to know the best food to eat night before surgery and what you can’t eat after your surgery.
There is a need for sobriety before an operation: General anesthesia does not only affect the patient’s awareness and pain sensation. Other functions of the body – including vital protective reflexes of the musculature – are stunned. An empty stomach thus serves as a safety measure that no leftovers reach the lungs via the esophagus.
Nutrition on the day of the operation
As a general rule, the patient should not eat for six hours before anesthesia. Two hours earlier, he should also stop hydration. Exceptions are particulate and fat-free beverages. For example, fruit-free juices, teas, coffee without milk and also cola or lemonade are permitted. Children and infants may be breastfed or given the bottle for up to four hours before the anesthesia.
Depending on the intervention, illness, and condition of the patient, individual dietary requirements may exist prior to the operation. This usually applies to persons who are overweight, who are fed on a nasogastric tube, who suffers from a tumor in the upper gastrointestinal tract or who may find it difficult to ventilate.
Nutrition in preparation for the operation
In order to best prepare the body for surgery, a sufficient supply of nutrients in advance is crucial. With proper nutrition before surgery, not only the body but also the immune system is strengthened. A weakened immune system during surgery increases the risks of complications and infections. You should pay attention to a balanced and healthy diet a few weeks before the operation.
Highly recommended is protein: this supports the healing process and the immune system. Vegetables provide the necessary vitamins and nutrients. Quinoa, whole rice or oatmeal sufficient energy. Especially people who are struggling with nutrition problems due to their illness should pay attention to a balanced diet in the weeks before the procedure.
Further measures for your health
For an optimal healing process, it is also beneficial to abstain from smoking and consuming alcohol. Smoking favors wound healing disorders and severe scarring, which is why smokers should not be smoked for two weeks before and up to two weeks after surgery. In addition, it may be the case that you need to stop taking certain medicines before surgery in order to avoid interactions with other medicines. This may also affect herbal and natural remedies.
After the operation, a well-balanced and healthy diet contributes to a speedy recovery. For inpatient stays, this takes into account a special nutritional plan. At home, keeping them for your health is always an advantage.